The Banks can be classified on a number of basis. Depending upon the criterion selected, a bank can be classified into more than one category also.


Scheduled Banks Public Sector Banks Statutory Banks Payment Banks
Non- Scheduled Banks Private Banks

1. Indian

2. Foreign

Nationalized Banks Small       Banks
Cooperative Banks Regional Rural Banks   


At present there are 149 scheduled banks in India, including 56 RRBs. (RBI data, Dec 2015.)

A bank whose name appears in the second schedule of the RBI Act, 1934 is called a ‘scheduled bank’. Whenever the RBI is not satisfied with the functioning of a bank, it may delete the name of that bank from the second schedule. Barring a few small banks, almost all banks (including foreign ones) in India are Scheduled Banks.

The bank whose name does not appear in the 2nd schedule is called a ‘non- scheduled bank’.


The banks which have been constituted under a separate Act of Parliament are called Statutory Banks. Some examples of such banks are – Reserve Bank of India (Reserve Bank of India Act-1934), State Bank of India (State Bank of India Act – 1955), IDBI Bank (Industrial Development Bank (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 2003). 


All those banks where the government share holding is 51% or more are called Public Sector Banks. Thus all nationalized banks, SBI, IDBI Bank and RRBs are Public Sector Banks.

The State Bank of India is the largest public sector bank in India.


The banks which were nationalised in 1969 and 1980 vide Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Act are called nationalised banks. In all, 14 banks, each with deposits of over Rs 50 crores, were nationalised in 1969.

Later, in 1980, six more banks, each with deposits of over Rs 200 crore, were nationalised. Of the 6 banks nationalised in 1980, New Bank of India was merged with Punjab National Bank in 1993, leaving only 19 nationalised banks.

Punjab National Bank is the largest nationalised bank in India.


The capital structure of the RRB is jointly subscribed by the Central Government–50%, State Government–15% and Sponsoring Bank–35%.

Recently govt. has decided to increase the authorized capital of RRBs from Rs. 5 crore to Rs. 2000 crores.


All banks other than public sector banks are called Private Banks. These banks are registered under the Companies Act, 1956. They are of two types – Indian Banks and Foreign Banks. The Banks registered in India are called Indian Banks while those with their registered office outside India are called Foreign Banks.

ICICI Bank is the largest Indian private sector bank and Standard Chartered Bank is the largest foreign bank in India.


The Narasimhan Working Group (1975) proposed the establishment of RRBs as special purpose, low cost banks to serve the banking needs of rural areas.

These banks were formed under the Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976. Every RRB has to be sponsored by a public sector bank.  At present there are 56 RRBs.

Generally, they are confined to a local area only and are not allowed to open branches in cities.

75 per cent of their total loans have to be in priority sector.


These banks are co-operative societies registered under the respective State Cooperative Societies Act. For their organisational structure, they are governed by the State Cooperative Societies Act and for their banking functions they are governed under Banking Regulation Act.

Both RRBs and Coop Banks are supervised by NABARD as well.

Inspection of RRBs and Cooperative Banks is conducted by NABARD under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.


These financial institutions have been set up under different acts of Parliament, each for a specific purpose. They do not have a banking licence and hence, cannot issue their own cheques.  They have limited public dealings and generally, they deal with banks and other financial institutions. In India, there are six major DFIs as under:

  1. NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development): Set up in 1982 under the NABARD Act, 1981, it works for development of agriculture and rural economy. It is also the regulator of cooperative banks and RRBs.  It is owned by the Government of India (99.50%) and RBI (0.50%).

          Head Office: Mumbai

  1. EXIM Bank (Export Import Bank of India): Set up in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act, 1981, wholly owned by Government of India, it works for the promotion and financing of exports.

          Head Office: Mumbai

  1. NHB (National Housing Bank): Set up in 1988 under the National Housing Bank Act, 1987, it is owned by the Reserve Bank of India and works for the development of housing finance sector and also regulates the housing finance companies.

          Head Office: New Delhi

  1. SIDBI (Small Industries Development Bank of India): Set up in 1990 under the SIDBI Act, 1989 for the promotion, financing and development of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector. Promoted by IDBI, it is owned by a number of financial institutions.Head Office: Lucknow
  2. IFCI (Industrial Finance Corporation of India):
    Established in 1948 under an act of Parliament, it is the first Development Financial Institution (DFI) in the country to cater to the long-term finance needs of the industrial sector. The government holds a majority share in IFCI along with several other Financial Institutions.Head Office: New Delhi
  1. MUDRA (Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Ltd.) It is an institution for development and refinancing of loans up to Rs. 10 lakh to non-farm sector only to micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) by all public sector banks, RRBs, MFIs, NBFCs.It functions under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).Head Office: Mumbai

It has 3 loan schemes:

  1. Shishu for loans up to Rs. 50,000/-,
  2. Kishore for loans above 50,000 up to Rs. 5 lakh,
  3. Tarun for loan above Rs 5 lakh up to Rs 10 lakh.

The government has decided to convert MUDRA in to a regular bank.      


(as in Dec. 2015)

1. Rural 49,181
2. Semi-Urban 35,259
3. Urban 24,608
4. Metropolitan 21,650
Total 1,30,698


A few banks, on account of their size, cross-jurisdictional activities, complexity, specialities and linkage with other banks, become important for the entire system. Their failure may cause significant disruption to the entire banking system. Such banks thus are considered Systemically Important Banks (SIBs) as their continued functioning is critical for the uninterrupted availability of banking services.

In July 2014, RBI had announced the framework for dealing with D-SIBs and names of banks designated as domestic systemically important bank were to be declared every year in August starting from August 2015.

On August 31, 2015, RBI, for the first time gave the status of D-SIB to State Bank of India and ICICI Bank.


According to the Reserve Bank of India, India needs variety of Banks to cater to needs of different strata of society. The Nachiket Mor Committee constituted by the RBI has proposed a Differentiated Banking system with Payment Banks for Deposits and Wholesale Banks for credit with relaxed entry points for financial inclusion.

The Reserve Bank released the guidelines for ‘Payment Banks’ and ‘Small Finance Banks’ in November 2014.


These banks can receive demand deposits and make remittances, but cannot lend; focus on migrant labour and low income households.

On August 19, 2015, RBI gave in principle approval to 11 entities to set up Payment Banks.

They are India Post, Reliance Industries Ltd., Aditya Birla Nuvo, Tech Mahindra, Sun Pharma, National Securities Depository Ltd., Airtel M Commerce Services Ltd., Vodafone m-pesa Ltd., Cholamandalam Distribution Services Ltd., Fino Pay Tech Ltd. and Paytm.


These banks will lend to “un-served and under-served sections”, including small business units, small and marginal farmers, and micro and small industries.

On Sep 18, 2015 RBI gave in principle approval for 10 Small Finance Banks.

They include Ujjivan Financial Services Pvt. Ltd, Janalakshmi Financial Services Pvt. Ltd, Equitas Holdings Ltd, Au Financiers (India) Ltd, Capital Local Area Bank Ltd*, Disha Microfin Pvt. Ltd, ESAF Microfinance and Investments Pvt. Ltd, RGVN (North East) Microfinance Ltd, Suryoday Micro Finance Pvt. Ltd, and Utkarsh Micro Finance Pvt. Ltd.

*It started functioning as India’s first small finance bank in March, 2016. 


Provide small savings accounts and payments/remittance services to migrant labour  workforce and low-income households Financial inclusion and credit to small business units through high –technology, low–cost operations
Individuals or professionals with necessary experience and eligibility, existing NBFCs, corporate banking correspondents, mobile companies, supermarket chains, real estate co-ops and corporate entities Resident individuals or professionals with 10 years of experience in banking and finance, companies and societies owned and controlled by residents, existing NBFCs, microfinance institutions and local area banks owned and controlled by residents
Can accept only demand deposits where balance should not exceed Rs. 1 lakh. Cannot open FD or RD accounts Basic services of accepting deposits and lending
Cannot give loans, can issue ATM/debit card but not credit cards No restriction on the area of operations
Can distribute non-risk simple financial products such as mutual funds and insurance products  At least 50% of its loan portfolio should comprise loans and advances of up to Rs. 25 lakh. 
NRIs will not be allowed to open accounts 75% of their total loans have to be in the priority sector.
Minimum 75 per cent of its “demand deposit balances” to be invested in SLR securities. Will have to observe same CRR and SLR norms as for regular commercial banks.
Minimum paid-up equity capital of Rs. 100 crore. Promoter’s contribution has to be not less than 40% for first 5 years. 



A Bank is a financial institution which acts as an intermediary between those who have surplus funds and those who need it. Persons with surplus funds keep their deposits with the banks, out of which the banks give loans to those who require them. Thus, the Banks help in mobilising the savings and put these idle savings to productive use.

Thus, banks act as levellers of wealth not only between persons but also among different areas by mobilising funds from surplus areas and investing them in deficit areas, thereby leading to distribution of wealth. Therefore, banks are also known as ‘financial intermediaries.’


Banking is a legally defined activity, which means that it is governed by strict rules and regulations. The Banking Regulation Act, 1949 defines and governs the banking activities in India.

As per Section 5(b) of this act, banking has been defined as “the accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawal by cheque, draft, order or otherwise”. In simple words, banking is related to –

  1. Accepting deposits of money from the public.
  2. For the purpose of lending, i.e. making loans, and making investments (in approved govt. securities).
  3. Withdrawal of money on demand or through cheque.

The above three are the basic functions of the banks. Other than this, banks are allowed to undertake several other functions like bill business, foreign exchange business, bonds/debentures, bank guarantees, letter of credit, etc. as mentioned in Sec. 6 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.

However, modern banking covers a large number of other activities also like issuance of debit/credit cards, providing safe custody of valuable items, locker facility, ATM services, transfer of funds, etc.


Banking has three unique features which are not available to any other organisation.

  1. The deposits are repayable on demand. It means that whenever a depositor wants to withdraw the money, bank will pay the money, subject to applicable rules. For example, A makes an FD for a period of 6 years but on the second day if he needs the payment, bank will make the payment.

No company other than a bank can accept deposits payable on demand.

  1. The Banks are allowed to issue cheques and no company other than a bank can issue its own cheques.
  2. For the Banks, it is necessary to incorporate words like bank, banking, banker, in their name. No other organisation is allowed to use such words as part of its name.

Some other features of banking include:

  • Banks are authorized to create credit i.e. creating additional money by making loans.
  • Most of the banks are commercial in nature, i.e. they function for making profits. 


A company registered under the Companies Act, which transacts the business of banking as defined in Banking Regulation Act is known as banking company. Most of the banks are in the form of registered company.


In all countries the entire banking system is controlled by a Central Bank. The name Central Bank is given to that bank which is entrusted with task of controlling the issue of money and regulating all other banks. It also regulates the supply of money in the country. In India this function is performed by RBI.


To undertake the banking activities in India, it is compulsory, by law, to obtain a licence from the Reserve Bank of India (Sec.22 of Banking Regulation Act, 1949). Even the foreign banks have to obtain such a licence from the RBI before opening a branch in India. The RBI also has the powers to cancel the licence, if it is not satisfied with the bank’s functioning.

Minimum capital required to start a banking company is Rs. 500 crore. 


The Banking Regulation Act, 1949 authorises the Reserve Bank of India to regulate and control the banks in India. As per Section 35(a) of this law, the RBI is fully authorized to issue instructions/directions to the banks as it deems fit, as and when considered necessary. It is mandatory for all the banks (including foreign banks) to comply with directions of the RBI.  Further, Sec. 35 authorises RBI to inspect any bank branch any time.




The idea of banks began as long ago as 1,800 BC in Babylon, a city in present day Iraq. In those days wealthy persons acted as moneylenders and made loans to people.

Beginning of formal banking can be traced to the functioning of money lenders in 12th and 13th centuries in the Italian towns of Florence and Genoa. In the 16th century, a German family called the Fuggers from Augsburg became prominent bankers.

At the end of the 17th century, England suffered heavy losses in war with France. So in 1694, a group of wealthy persons got together to form the Bank of England to provide loan to the government.  The Bank of Scotland was founded in 1695.

In 1833, bank notes issued by the Bank of England were made legal tender i.e. they must be accepted as a valid means of payment. Modern banks began with the Bank Charter Act of 1844.

Chartered Bank of India opened its branches in Mumbai and Calcutta in 1858.           


The existence of banking in India could be traced to the 500 BC. Chanakya’s Arthashastra, dating back to 400 BC contains references to creditors, lenders and lending rates.

Beginning of formal banking in India dates back to opening of Bank of Bombay in 1720 in Mumbai.  It was followed by Bank of Hindustan in 1770 in Kolkata.

Structured professional banking with government support began in June 1806 with the opening of the Bank of Bengal, first ‘Presidency Bank’ in Calcutta.

Later, two more Presidency Banks were opened – Bank of Bombay in 1840 and Bank of Madras in 1843.  In 1921, these three presidency banks were merged to form Imperial Bank of India.

The first Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank set up in Allahabad in 1865, followed by the Punjab National Bank in 1895 in Lahore.

The following are some major milestones in the field of banking in India:   

1935:   Establishment of Reserve Bank of India.

1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.

1955:   Nationalisation of Imperial Bank into State Bank of India.

1969:   Nationalisation of 14 major Banks.

1975:   Creation of Regional Rural Banks.

1980:   Nationalisation of six banks with deposits of over 200 Crores.

1988:   Beginning of computerization in banks

1992:   Introduction of NPA system

1994:   Entry of private tech savvy banks, ATMs

2000:   Dawn of online banking

2004/05: Beginning of RTGS/NEFT 

2009:   Incorporation of NPCI for retail payment systems

2010:   Connectivity of ATMs 

2015:   Opening of Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks



SBI new update

Finally, the most keenly awaited SBI PO Exam is here, with 2, 403 vacancies on offer. There is great buzz all around as it opens your gateway to the most prestigious and rewarding job of all. You have enough time on hands to prepare well for it and make it really happen. But given the intense competition among the lakhs of aspirants, only those willing to put in their 100% will emerge successful. It’s high time you worked hard and made a career-changing difference in your life.

Knowing a bit more about SBI and its work culture would help you understand and put the things in proper perspective.

About SBI

State Bank of India, a public sector banking and financial services company, headquartered in Mumbai, is a banking behemoth and commands 20% market share in deposits and loans among Indian banks. After the proposed mergers of its associate banks with it this year, it will have a combined asset base of Rs. 37 lakh crore, propelling it to among Top 100 Banks globally.

In 2016, the Google search trends indicated SBI jobs to be one of the most searched keywords as compared to other banks. SBI was ranked among Fortune Global 500 companies in 2016. Besides, it was the 29th most reputed company globally as per Forbes rankings. SBI is also one of the Most Trusted Brands in India as per the Brand Trust Report. Despite being a sarkari bank, it follows extremely advanced Human Resources practices, which are on par with those of the most advanced global corporations worldwide. So you can expect to find a professional, congenial work atmosphere empowered by the latest management practices.

Why SBI?

* Excellent Salary

* Wide branch network

* All round development

* Cross-functional exposure

* Good HR Culture  

* Global banking exposure   

* Job security

* Good training facilities

Role and Responsibilities

Understanding the profile, role & responsibilities of a SBI PO will not only save you from unexpected surprises while on duty but also gives you an extra edge while answering the interview questions. All selected POs will be on a 2-year probation, after which, they are assessed and confirmed as permanent employees.

Job Profile

The job profile of a SBI PO is little bit different from that of a Bank PO in other banks. You will be posted as JMG – Scale 1 in different branches i.e. Local Head Office, Regional Office, SME Branch, General Banking branch or Special Branches or Corporate Office or Zonal Offices or elsewhere. You will be learning about

  1. The nitty gritties of General Banking
  2. Marketing of New Schemes
  3. Bringing New Business

There is great focus on marketing and cross-selling also. Hence it is also a major part of a SBI PO’s Job Profile.

The Rewards

The pay scale for SBI PO is: Rs. 23700-980/7-30560-1145/2-32850-1310/7-42020 applicable to Junior Management Grade Scale-I. Currently, the starting basic pay is Rs. 27,620/- (with 4 advance increments).

Besides, you will also be eligible for D.A, H.R.A/Lease rental and other allowances & perquisites. The allowances vary depending upon the place of posting. The total compensation per annum would be between Rs. 7.55 lakh and Rs. 12.93 lakh depending on the place of posting and other factors.


The SBI also plans to offer SMART Compensation Package which would enable candidates a choice to monetize specific elements of the salary package. It is also all set to chalk out plans, regarding offering work from home option to its female employees in order to retain them.

For more visit our website gyanm.in

SBI New Pattern

The SBI PO Exam, tentatively fixed for April-May 2017, will be conducted in three phases i.e.

  1. Online written Preliminary examination
  2. Mains examination and
  3. Group exercises/Interview 

Payment of Application Fees/Intimation ChargesFeb 7, 2017 to March 6, 2017

Group Exercises & Interview

Pre-Examination Training for SC/ST/Religious Minority Community candidates

Preliminary Examination  Date
On-line registration and Modification of Application by candidates Feb 7,2017 to March 6, 2017
Download of call letters for Preliminary Exam March 15, 2017 onward
Preliminary Examination 29th,30th April and 6th & 7th May, 2017
Preliminary Examination Results May 17, 2017
Mains Examination
Download of Call letter for Online Mains Exam 22-05-2017 onward
Online Mains Examination June 4th,2017
Mains Examination Results June 19th, 2017
Download of Call Letter for Interview June 26th, 2017
Conduct of Group Exercises & Interview July 10th, 2017 Onwards
Final Results August 5th, 2017
Download of call letters for Pre-Exam Training April 7, 2017 onwards
Conduct of Pre-Exam Training April 17,2017-April 22,2017
Test Structure
A) Preliminary Examination


Sr.No Name of Test Questions Marks Time
1. English Language 30 30 Composite 1 Hour
2. Numerical Ability 35 35
3. Reasoning Ability 35 35

There is negative marking of ¼ marks for every wrong answer.

You need to qualify in each test by securing the minimum pass marks to be decided by the Bank. The number of candidates to be short listed for the Main Examination will be approximately 20 times the numbers of vacancies 

B) Mains Examination

The Main Examination will consist of Objective Tests for 200 marks and a Descriptive Test for 50 marks. Both the Objective and Descriptive Tests will be held online. The candidates will have to answer Descriptive test by typing on the computer. Immediately after completion of the Objective Test, the Descriptive Test will be administered.

Descriptive Test: Test of English Language (Letter Writing & Essay) – 50 Marks, 30 Minutes

NOTE: The Descriptive Test papers of only those candidates will be evaluated who have scored qualifying marks in the Objective Tests and are placed adequately high as per total marks in the objective test.

C) Phase – III: Group Exercises (20 marks) & Interview (30 marks)

Adequate number of candidates in each category, as decided by the Bank will be called for Group Exercises and Interview. The qualifying marks in Group Exercises &Interview will be as decided by the Bank.

Age Limits: (As on 01.04.2017): Not below 21 years and not above 30 years as on 01.04.2017 i.e. candidates must have been born not earlier than 02.04.1987 and not later than 01.04.1996 (both days inclusive)

Punjab polls: All in the family, Dera Baba Nanak may see Randhawa vs Randhawa

Punjab polls: All in the family, Dera Baba Nanak may see Randhawa vs Randhawa
Punjab polls: All in the family, Dera Baba Nanak may see Randhawa vs Randhawa

Cracks have appeared in former Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee president and ex-minister late Santokh Singh Randhawa’s legacy. His two sons won’t be on the same side in the coming elections.

Santokh’s elder son Inderjit Singh Randhawa has decided to oppose his younger sibling, sitting Congress MLA from Dera Baba Nanak Sukhjinder Singh Randhawa, who is also party’s pick for the 2017 elections, in the upcoming polls.

Sukhjinder had earlier opposed his nephew, Inderjit’s son Deepinder Singh Randhawa, in the Punjab Youth Congress elections. Still, Deepinder was elected Punjab Youth Congress general secretary with the support of former PPCC president and Rajya Sabha MP Partap Singh Bajwa.

Inderjit had been active in the party activities with the hope that the Congress will prefer him over Sukhjinder as the party candidate from Dera Baba Nanak, riding on the fact that Congress nominee had trailed by over 25,000 votes from the assembly segment in the 2014 parliamentary elections.

Inderjit has urged the All India Congress Committee president Sonia Gandhi, vice president Rahul Gandhi and PPCC president Capt Amarinder Singh to withdraw the candidature of Sukhjinder, saying he was not in a position to retain the seat.

Inderjit said if Sukhjinder contested from Dera Baba Nanak, ”I will oppose him to ensure his defeat”.  He also said he may contest as an independent if his supporters wanted him to.

Sukhjinder said he was sure of his landslide victory in the upcoming assembly elections for he was enjoying the support of the Congress workers and masses of his constituency.

Source: Hindustan Times

Australia wins first test against Pakistan by 39 runs in Brisbane

Australia captured Pakistan’s last two wickets to win the first day-night test in Brisbane by 39 runs before tea on day five on Monday but the touring side won huge admiration for their dogged fourth innings chase.

Paceman Mitchell Starc proved the game-breaker, ending a stubborn 71-run partnership between Asad Shafiq and Yasir Shah with a searing delivery that dismissed Shafiq for 137.

Yasir Shah was the last Pakistan wicket to fall when he was run out by Steve Smith with a direct hit for 33.

Australia take a 1-0 lead in the three-match series.
Source: The Hindu

Pathankot attack: NIA files charge sheet against JeM chief Masood Azhar

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) on Monday filed a charge sheet in the Pathankot airbase terror attack, naming Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) chief Masood Azhar and three others of his organisation as accused.

In a comprehensive charge sheet filed at Panchkula Special Court about a year after attack, the NIA has highlighted the role of terror group JeM in spreading mayhem in India and referred to the nefarious plans of the outfit, sources said.

The charge sheet which also named Azhar’s brother Rauf Asghar as accused, alleged that immediately after the Pathankot incident, he had hosted a video message claiming responsibility for the terror strike and glorified the role of Azhar, who was released in exchange for passengers of hijacked Indian Airlines plane IC-814 in 1999.

The charge sheet is likely to be used by India at various international fora to highlight the role of Masood Azhar in Pathankot terror strike carried out on January 2 this year.

Launching of a diplomatic offensive against the JeM and its chief Masood Azhar has become imperative after China continued to stonewall efforts of India to get U.N. sanctions against the terrorist and his group.

The Home Ministry had given sanction to NIA to file the charge sheet against Azhar, his brother and the two handlers — Qashif Jan and Shaid Latif — of the four terrorists, under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).

The four terrorists, after entering India from Bamiyal area of Gurdaspur, had carried out the strike at Pathankot IAF base killing eight people including seven personnel of IAF and NSG.

The charge sheet named four terrorists involved in the attack.

According to the NIA, the terrorists, who were killed after two days of gunfight, were identified as Nasir Hussain, Hafiz Abu Bakar, Umar Farooq and Abdul Qayum and they were residents of Vehari (Punjab), Gujranwala (Punjab), Sanghar (Sindh) and Sukkur (Sindh) of Pakistan respectively.

The charge sheet includes evidence of linking the footprints of one of the terrorists obtained from Bamiyal besides matching of DNA sample found from a soft drink can in the hijacked car of Punjab Superintendent of Police Salwinder Singh, the sources said.

The Pathankot terror strike had seen a joint investigation team from Pakistan also arriving in India for carrying out a probe.

However, the Pakistani team, upon their return, claimed that India neither shared much of evidence nor allowed it to interrogate the security personnel involved in dealing with the attack.

Source: The Hindu

Alternative for communication during disasters developed in IIT Madras

One of the first things to get affected during natural disasters and accidents is the communication network. In a country where over a billion use mobile phones, providing mobile connectivity during a disaster, at least for emergency usage, is a priority.

In this context, an IIT Madras team is developing a low-cost communication system that can enable rescue workers to communicate with a locally established centre and, through this centre, to the National Disaster Management Agency (NDMA) in Delhi.

The plan is also to enable citizens within the reach of this system to communicate essential messages, such as “I am safe” or basic information – name, age, gender, etc, of persons discovered. The whole system is compatible with basic model mobile phones, as most users in India do not own smart phones. The system, named DISANET, allows basic services such as voice, text and video communications to be exchanged within this network of rescue workers, Master Operation Centre and the NDMA.

The design has four subsystems — WiFi, a satellite link, single-carrier GSM and LTE (Long Term Evolution) which is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals. The compact system can be easily transported in trucks to the site of the Master Operation Centre within a few hours of the disaster. The wireless system should provide coverage over an area of approximately 1,000 square kilometres.

At present, people who are involved in rescue operations, such as police personnel, use walkie/talkie handsets (VHF/UHF). “VHF/UHF handsets are expensive, costing anywhere up to a couple of lakhs of rupees. So the police are very selective of who gets to use them… Much of the police force depends on GSM for its communication needs, and they are subject to all the disruptions that affect GSM network,” says Devendra Jalihal of the Electrical Engineering department of IIT, who along with David Koilpillai, also from the same department, is developing this system.

Rescue workers with GSM handsets, WiFi cameras and WiFi nodes can spread out over an area of 12-25 square kilometre to form the primary deployment area. These workers supply communication between the affected area and the Master Operation Centre (MOC). The MOC has pico- or micro-sized LTE-Base Stations which are mounted at a height of 15 to 20 metres.

This is achieved by a tethered-balloon that is inflated and hoisted at the MOC. But this system is being improved – instead of balloons, drones are being tested. “We tested a variant of this during Mahamaham [festival] at Kumbakonam in February, this year, for Tamil Nadu Police. Police personnel with smart phones could initiate and receive calls using WiFi channels. We are proposing this kind of system whenever there is a large gathering, as the GSM network experiences ‘congestion’ and the police need another line of communication,” says Dr Jalihal. The architecture, which mainly supports usage by rescue workers, can be extended to allow citizen victims to send short SMSs communication.

Also, the rescue team can directly communicate with citizens about the arrangements using FM broadcast, which citizens receive on their mobiles. This enables the flow of authenticated information from the authorities to the citizens and prevents rumour-mongering during times of disaster.

“We are now trying to build a GSM network with low cost hardware and open source software and hope to test it in the next couple of months,” says Dr Jalihal.

Source: The Hindu

England all out for 477 in fifth test , day 2

Post-Tea on Day 2, India’s Amit Mishra removed the last batsman Bell for 12. Debutant Dawson remained unbeaten on 66 and England were all out for 477.

India now has to at least 15-20 overs to end Day 2. England bowlers on the other hand will fight hard to take a wicket or two to put pressure on the Indian batsmen.

At Tea on Day 2, England had amassed 452-8 thanks to a century partnership between debutant Liam Dawson and Adil Rashid after India had picked up three early wickets — Ben Stokes, Jos Buttler and centurion Moeen Ali — in the morning.

Umesh Yadav finally ended the stodgy 8th-wicket partnership after 108 runs, getting the English leggie to chase nick a short wide delivery in the 146th over. By then, Rashid had scored a patient 60 off 155 balls, while Dawson got to his half-century in 120 deliveries, and the visitors had taken their score up to 430.

At Lunch on Day 2, England was 352/7, having added added 68 runs to their overnight score. Dawson was batting on 27 at lunch with Adil Rashid on eight at the other end.

A England’s third-wicket stand between Moeen Ali and Joe Root carried the visitors to 284 for four on day 1 of the fifth and final Test match against India.

Ben Stokes and Moeen Ali, who was riding on the century from day 1, took strike on day 2 with England preparing to set a high score in the first innings. Local boy Ravichandran Ashwin removed Stokes in the fifth ball of the first over.

Sluggish day for England

Resuming on 284-4, England got an early jolt as Ashwin struck with the day’s fifth delivery at the MA Chidambaram Stadium. The offie lured Ben Stokes onto the front foot to edge a fuller delivery which Parthiv Patel collected behind the stumps. The leading wicket-taker of the series had endured a rare wicketless day on Friday.

Paceman Ishant Sharma trapped Jos Buttler LBW for five while Moeen, who resumed on 120, looked ill at ease against the short-pitched deliveries, often fending at them awkwardly.

The left-hander virtually walked into a trap when Umesh Yadav forced him into playing a pull shot, which the batsman mistimed to find Ravindra Jadeja at deep mid-wicket.

Moeen faced 262 balls, hitting 13 boundaries and a six, before surrendering to what is now a familiar weakness.

Dawson endured a tough Test initiation, the second ball he faced from Sharma smacking him on his helmet but the 26-year-old grew confident with time to hit three boundaries, the last of which took England past the 350-mark.